Between 1997 to 2007, GDP has been multiplied by 3.5. The growth of the Kazakhstan economy, which is largely based on the oil-gas annuity (35% of GDP, close to 60% of exports and over 40% of budgetary revenues in 2013), has benefited from the rising price of oil. Today, Kazakhstan is seeking to diversify its industrial base and technology, particularly through partnerships with foreign companies.
Kazakhstan holds 75% of the hydrocarbon reserves of the Caspian Sea (3% of world oil reserves, 1.7% of gas reserves) and by 2020 could become the seventh largest producer of oil, once the giant field of Kashagan (40% of proved reserves of the country) begins operations. Kazakhstan also has the second largest reserve of uranium (largest producer).
The country was extremely badly hit by the economic crisis of 2008-9, notably due to the weakness of its banking system. However, Kazakhstan has recorded strong growth between 5 and 7% since 2009: 5% in 2013 after 5.9% in 2012. This growth should remain strong in 2014 with a forcast of 5.2%. The country's GDP represents today nearly 75% of the GDP of the entire region of Central Asia.
Due to a strong government price control, inflation has decreased sharply to 6% in 2013. The financial system remains fragile.
The country remains dependent on oil prices and the economy is still driven by oil exports, despite government efforts to diversify. The July 2010 creation of a Customs Union which includes Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, will help facilitate this diversification.
Wages have been increasing since 2010 and the unemployment rate has decreased (according to the criteria of the International Labor Organization - ILO), to stay around 5% since 2011 (5.2% in 2013).
|Main Indicators||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015 (e)|
|GDP (billions USD)||188.05||203.52||231.88e||225.62e||248.68|
|GDP (Constant Prices, Annual % Change)||7.5||5.0||6.0||4.6||4.7|
|GDP per Capita (USD)||11,278||12,034||13e||12,950||14,064|
|General Government Gross Debt (in % of GDP)||10.4||12.4||12.9||13.7e||14.5|
|Inflation Rate (%)||8.3||5.1||5.8e||6.9||6.1|
|Unemployment Rate (% of the Labor Force)||5.4||5.3||5.2||5.2||5.2|
|Current Account (billions USD)||10.20||1.08||-0.12||0.58||-1.75|
|Current Account (in % of GDP)||5.4||0.5||-0.1||0.3||-0.7|
Source: IMF - World Economic Outlook Database , Last Available Data
Note: (e) Estimated Data
The agricultural sector only contributed to 5.2% of the GDP in 2013 but has employed 27.9% of the active population. Kazakhstan, with more than 22 million hectares of agricultural land, is the 6th largest global producer of cereals, despite its low yields per hectare. Livestock farming is also an important activity. Kazakhstan is practically self-sufficient in food production.
Kazakhstan is rich in natural resources, almost all of them are present in its subsoil.
Industry represents 37.9% of the GDP and employs 18.9% of active population. The production of hydrocarbons has been increasing steadily since 2008. The manufacturing activities are limited to textile, chemical products, fertilizers and pharmaceutical products.
The tertiary sector is growing, contributing 56.9% to the GDP in 2013 and employing 53.2% of the active population.
|Breakdown of Economic Activity By Sector||Agriculture||Industry||Services|
|Employment By Sector (in % of Total Employment)||25.5||19.4||55.1|
|Value Added (in % of GDP)||4.9||36.9||58.2|
|Value Added (Annual % Change)||11.2||3.1||6.7|
Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.
|Kazakhstan Tenge (KZT) - Average Annual Exchange Rate For 1 USD||147.50||147.35||146.62||149.11||152.13|
Source: World Bank - Last Available Data.
The Economic freedom index measure ten components of economic freedom, grouped into four broad categories or pillars of economic freedom: Rule of Law (property rights, freedom from corruption); Limited Government (fiscal freedom, government spending); Regulatory Efficiency (business freedom, labor freedom, monetary freedom); and Open Markets (trade freedom, investment freedom, financial freedom). Each of the freedoms within these four broad categories is individually scored on a scale of 0 to 100. A country’s overall economic freedom score is a simple average of its scores on the 10 individual freedoms.
The business rankings model measures the quality or attractiveness of the business environment in the 82 countries covered by The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Country Forecast reports. It examines ten separate criteria or categories, covering the political environment, the macroeconomic environment, market opportunities, policy towards free enterprise and competition, policy towards foreign investment, foreign trade and exchange controls, taxes, financing, the labour market and infrastructure.
Kazakhstan is open to international trade. Its main export goods are oil, petroleum products, coal, iron ore, chemical products, machinery, cereal, wool and meat. Its main export partners in 2013 have been China, Italy, the Netherlands Russia and France.
The country mainly imports machinery, electric and electronic equipment and food products. Russia is an important partner of Kazakhstan, both politically and economically. The two countries have undertaken common projects in many fields including energy. Kazakhstan's main import partners are Russia (over 38% of total import in 2013), China, followed by Ukraine, Germany and the United States.
Joining the WTO remains a stated goal for the end of 2014. The negotiations are progressing and the country is currently an observer to the organisation.
|Foreign Trade Indicators||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013|
|Imports of Goods (million USD)||28,409||31,107||37,056||46,358||48,873|
|Exports of Goods (million USD)||43,196||59,971||87,603||92,286||82,512|
|Imports of Services (million USD)||9,881||11,165||10,812||12,603||12,060|
|Exports of Services (million USD)||3,813||3,895||4,073||4,596||4,639|
|Imports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change)||-15.7||2.9||2.8||20.9||5.8|
|Exports of Goods and Services (Annual % Change)||-11.9||3.1||0.4||4.7||-0.2|
|Imports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP)||33.9||29.9||27.3||30.5||26.7|
|Exports of Goods and Services (in % of GDP)||41.8||44.2||47.6||45.1||38.2|
|Trade Balance (million USD)||15,000||28,499||44,844||38,145||33,691|
|Trade Balance (Including Service) (million USD)||9,043||21,276||38,209||30,197||26,816|
|Foreign Trade (in % of GDP)||75.8||74.1||74.9||75.6||64.9|
Source: WTO - World Trade Organization ; World Bank , Last Available Data
(% of Exports)
|See More Countries||39.0%|
(% of Imports)
|See More Countries||31.8%|
Source: Comtrade, Last Available Data
|- bn USD of products exported in 2013|
|Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude||66.9%|
|Petroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbonsPetroleum gas and other gaseous hydrocarbons||4.1%|
|Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals||3.8%|
|Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought ...Copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excl. copper alloys of heading 7405)||3.2%|
|Radioactive chemical elements and radioactive...Radioactive chemical elements and radioactive isotopes, incl. their fissile or fertile chemical elements and isotopes, and their compounds; mixtures and residues containing these products||2.8%|
|See More Products||19.1%|
|- bn USD of products imported in 2013|
|Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude||5.8%|
|Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally...Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons, incl. station wagons and racing cars (excl. motor vehicles of heading 8702)||4.4%|
|Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections...Tubes and pipes, having circular cross-sections and an external diameter of > 406,4 mm, of flat-rolled products of iron or steel e.g., welded, riveted or similarly closed||3.5%|
|Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous...Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals (excl. crude); preparations containing >= 70% by weight of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals, these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations, n.e.s.; waste oils containing mainly petroleum or bituminous minerals||3.2%|
|Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed...Medicaments consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses incl. those in the form of transdermal administration or in forms or packings for retail sale (excl. goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006)||2.6%|
|See More Products||80.5%|
Source: Comtrade, Last Available Data
|- bn USD of services exported in 2011|
|Rail transportRail transport||18.52%|
|Air transportAir transport||12.71%|
|Road transportRoad transport||6.08%|
|Sea transportSea transport||0.71%|
|Personal travelPersonal travel||23.88%|
|Business travelBusiness travel||2.93%|
|Miscellaneous business,...Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services||5.62%|
|Architectural, engineering,...Architectural, engineering, and other technical services||2.21%|
|Legal, accounting, management...Legal, accounting, management consulting, and public relations||2.04%|
|Business and management...Business and management consulting and public relations services||1.09%|
|Accounting, auditing,...Accounting, auditing, bookkeeping, and tax consulting services||0.63%|
|Legal servicesLegal services||0.33%|
|Advertising, market research,...Advertising, market research, and public opinion polling||0.76%|
|Research and developmentResearch and development||0.31%|
|Services between related...Services between related enterprises, n.i.e.||0.29%|
|Operational leasing servicesOperational leasing services||3.19%|
|Merchanting and other trade-related...Merchanting and other trade-related services||0.11%|
|Telecommunications servicesTelecommunications services||2.04%|
|Postal and courier servicesPostal and courier services||0.20%|
|Other direct insuranceOther direct insurance||0.95%|
|Auxiliary servicesAuxiliary services||0.03%|
|Construction in the compiling...Construction in the compiling economy||0.97%|
|Computer servicesComputer services||0.18%|
|Information servicesInformation services||0.08%|
|Audiovisual and related servicesAudiovisual and related services||0.02%|
|Embassies and consulatesEmbassies and consulates||5.76%|
|Military units and agenciesMilitary units and agencies||3.10%|
|- bn USD of services imported in 2011|
|Miscellaneous business,...Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services||33.16%|
|Architectural, engineering,...Architectural, engineering, and other technical services||19.21%|
|Other business servicesOther business services||7.11%|
|Legal, accounting, management...Legal, accounting, management consulting, and public relations||4.30%|
|Business and management...Business and management consulting and public relations services||3.72%|
|Legal servicesLegal services||0.40%|
|Accounting, auditing,...Accounting, auditing, bookkeeping, and tax consulting services||0.18%|
|Services between related...Services between related enterprises, n.i.e.||1.26%|
|Research and developmentResearch and development||1.03%|
|Advertising, market research,...Advertising, market research, and public opinion polling||0.20%|
|Operational leasing servicesOperational leasing services||4.51%|
|Merchanting and other trade-related...Merchanting and other trade-related services||0.15%|
|Rail transportRail transport||7.15%|
|Road transportRoad transport||6.78%|
|Air transportAir transport||5.19%|
|Sea transportSea transport||0.74%|
|Construction in the compiling...Construction in the compiling economy||17.39%|
|Personal travelPersonal travel||14.20%|
|Business travelBusiness travel||0.73%|
|Auxiliary servicesAuxiliary services||0.04%|
|Other direct insuranceOther direct insurance||0.03%|
|Telecommunications servicesTelecommunications services||1.24%|
|Postal and courier servicesPostal and courier services||0.11%|
|Information servicesInformation services||0.41%|
|Computer servicesComputer services||0.39%|
|Audiovisual and related servicesAudiovisual and related services||0.47%|
|Embassies and consulatesEmbassies and consulates||1.14%|
|Other personal, cultural, and...Other personal, cultural, and recreational services||0.03%|
Source: Comtrade, Last Available Data
The parties should obtain at least 7% of the votes to be represented in the Majilis.
It is the responsibility of the Parliament to give its approval or non-approval of the nomination of the Prime Minister by the Head of State .
The world rankings, published annually, measures the violations of press freedom worldwide. It reflects the degree of freedom enjoyed by journalists, the media and digital citizens of each country and the means used by states to respect and uphold this freedom. Finally, a note and a position are assigned to each country. To compile this index, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) prepared a questionnaire sent to partner organizations,150 RWB correspondents, journalists, researchers, jurists and activists of human rights, including the main criteria - 44 in total - to assess the situation of press freedom in a given country. It includes every kind of direct attacks against journalists and digital citizens (murders, imprisonment, assault, threats, etc.) or against the media (censorship, confiscation, searches and harassment etc.).
The Indicator of Political Freedom provides an annual evaluation of the state of freedom in a country as experienced by individuals. The survey measures freedom according to two broad categories: political rights and civil liberties. The ratings process is based on a checklist of 10 political rights questions (on Electoral Process, Political Pluralism and Participation, Functioning of Government) and 15 civil liberties questions (on Freedom of Expression, Belief, Associational and Organizational Rights, Rule of Law, Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights). Scores are awarded to each of these questions on a scale of 0 to 4, where a score of 0 represents the smallest degree and 4 the greatest degree of rights or liberties present. The total score awarded to the political rights and civil liberties checklist determines the political rights and civil liberties rating. Each rating of 1 through 7, with 1 representing the highest and 7 the lowest level of freedom, corresponds to a range of total scores.
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