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flag Syria Syria: Operating a Business

In this page: Setting Up a Company | The Active Population in Figures | Working Conditions | Cost of Labor | Social Partners

 

Setting Up a Company

Private Limited Company
Number of partners: Minimum of two partners.
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount contributed.
Public Limited Company.
Number of partners: One or more shareholders.
Capital (max/min):  SYP 30,000
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited to the amount contributed.
Limited Partnership.
Number of partners: In addition of general partners there is one or more limited partners.
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital required.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited for some partners and unlimited for others.
Joint stock limited partnership.
Number of partners: In addition of general partners there is one or more limited partners.
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital required.
Shareholders and liability: Liability is limited for some partners and unlimited for others.
General Partnership.
Number of partners: Minimum 2 partners,
Capital (max/min): No minimum capital required.
Shareholders and liability: Partners' liability is indefinite and joint.
The Competent Organization
Foreign companies have to be registered with the Ministry of Economy and Trade.
 
Setting Up a Company Syria Middle East & North Africa
Procedures (number) 7.0 8.0
Time (days) 13.0 23.0

Source: Doing Business.

 
Business Setup Procedures
Consult Doing Business Website, to know about procedures to start a Business in Syria.
Ministry of Economy, Register a company.

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The Active Population in Figures

201120122013
Labor force 5,642,0005,540,0005,014,000

Source: CIA - The world factbook

 
200920102011
Total activity rate -50.40%42.50%
Men activity rate 79.50%71.60%71.60%
Women activity rate 21.10%12.90%13.10%

Source: UN - United Nations

 
Employed Persons, by Occupation (% of Total Labor Force) 2002
Agriculture 40.0%
Services 40.0%
Industry 20.0%

Source: Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor

 

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Working Conditions

Legal Weekly Duration
42 hours.
Retirement Age
60 in the civil service.
Working Contracts
The law is very specific and precise regarding the contracts of employment. The sources of labor legislation in the Syrian Arab Republic are law n°91 of  April 5, 1959 and legislative decree n°49 of  July 3, 1962. The contract must be drawn up in Arabic with a duplicate, with a copy for each party (art. 43, LC). The trial period is stated in the contract, but it cannot exceed 3 months (art. 44, LC). A contract of employment can be established for a short term period or for an unspecified period of time. If it is agreed for a short term period and both parties continue to comply with it after the expiration date, it must be renewed for an indefinite period of time (art. 71, LC).
Labor Laws
Consult Doing Business Website, to obtain a summary of the labor regulations that apply to local entreprises.

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Cost of Labor

Minimum Wage
SYP 6,110 per month (source: ILO, 2010).
Average Wage
Gross average monthly wage of men: SYP 13,502 (source: ILO, 2011);
Gross average monthly wage of women: SYP 15,592 (source: ILO, 2011).
Social contributions
Social Security Contributions Paid By Employers: 14% of salary.
Social Security Contributions Paid By Employees: 7% of income.

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Social Partners

Social Dialogue and Involvement of Social Partners
The General Federation of Trade Unions (GFTU) is the organization which represents workers in Syria. Since 1968, a decree has obliged all the country's trade unions to belong to the GFTU. This organization is strictly controlled by the ruling Baath party. It coordinates most aspects of union activity and determines which sectors or activities may create a union or a federation. As a consequence, union action is minimal and strikes are very rare.
Unionization Rate
The unionization rate in Syria is 100 %. Belonging to a trade union is mandatory in order to be employed.
Labor Regulation Bodies
Syrian Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor.

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Last Updates: January 2015