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flag Romania Romania: Selling and Buying

In this page: Market Access Procedures | Reaching the Consumers | Distributing a Product | Organizing Goods Transport | Identifying a Supplier


Market Access Procedures

International Conventions
Party to the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer
Party to the Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls For Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies
Main International Economic Cooperation
1 January 2007, Romania joined the EU. Since becoming a member of the EU, Romania's trade has increased with the countries which originally belonged to the EU and have been exempt from customs duties.


Romania is a member of the UN, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the International Organization of Francophonie, ASEM (en anglais) (Asia-Europe Meeting) etc.

Non Tariff Barriers
Romania does not impose import quotas or tariffs. Import permits are required for the import of pharmaceuticals, chemicals and medical products. Health and safety standards are in force along with pollution standards for products which could harm the environment. Agricultural safety certificates are required for the importation of plants and vegetation. Documents regarding transport, recommendations are for a business letter which must have at least one original and four copies, the certificates of origin must be provided with the original and no less than five copies or more.
Customs Duties and Taxes on Imports
Customs duties no longer exist for commercial trade with other EU countries. For other countries, customs duties generally amount up to 30% depending on the type and technical characteristics of the goods.

Customs Classification
Accession to the European nomenclature.
The declaration of intra-European Union VAT is based on EU Regulations.
Import Procedures
Joining the AEO status, Agreed Economic Operator, allows the unloading of merchandise at the destination to be considered them to be customs cleared. After the entry into the EU of Romania, customs duties were removed.

As part of the "SAFE" standards advocated by the World Customs Organization (WCO), the European Union has set up a new system of import controls, the "Import Control System" (ICS), which aims to secure the flow of goods at the time of their entry into the customs territory of the EU. This control system, part of the Community Program eCustomer, has been in effect since January 1, 2011. Since then, operators are required to pass an Entry Summary Declaration (ENS) to the customs of the country of entry, prior to the introduction of goods into the customs territory of the European Union.
Importing Samples
More on import procedures since the joining of the EU.
For Further Information
The National Customs Authority of Romania

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Reaching the Consumers

Marketing Opportunities

Consumer Behavior
According to the Institute of Romanian Statistics Romania's Annual Statistical Report on household spending: the total average expenditure per month per household amounted to RON 1565 for employees, RON 945.51 for farmers, RON 891.31 for the unemployed and RON 889.09 for pensioners. Purchases of food and beverages account for 39% to 57% of the total expenditures, followed by energy costs (water, electricity, gas) which vary between 11% and 17%.

The average Romanian consumer needs to be educated in the usage of food products that s/he has never previously purchased or consumed. Knowing this fact, food companies wishing to enter into the Romanian market have used training to inform their potential clientele: the consumption of croissants (which have now become common place), consumption of wine (used to be mixed with sodas to be more sweet) and its harmonization with the meal, demonstrations of the uses of caterers and home food delivery.

However, for new technologies and latest clothing fashion, Romanians are very fast at adapting.

Neologisms from English are quickly integrated: "orange" - phone company which is pronounced as the English, also like "Carrefour" (kaer'four), etc, Romanians are historically accustomed their fads and trends coming from the United States, during the time of communism.

Consumer Profile and Purchasing Power
Romania has one of the lowest purchasing power parities in Europe. According to the annual statistical report on the Romanian population, approximately 55% of the population is from urban areas compared with 45% who resides in the rural areas. Among the 22.2 million Romanians, 15.6% of the population was of 0-14 years old, 69.6% were 15-64 years old and 14.7% were 65 and over. The average age is 37.3 years with a rate of negative natural growth. The average life expectancy is 68 years for men and 75 years for women. On average, one woman has 1.38 children. Men generally marry at 30 and women at 27 (average age has increased over the passed years).
Consumers Associations
Protectia Consumatorilor , National Association for Consumer Protection and the Promotion of Programs and Strategies in Romania
in Romanian
Main Advertising Agencies
Union of Romanian Advertising Agencies
List of several advertising agencies operating in Romania
ARS Advertising SA

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Distributing a Product

Market Shares
The best-known brands in Romania are Aro 4x4 (Automobile Romania), Clever, Metro Quality, the brand '1', the brands of Carrefour and of Cora. In 2006, only 9% of the population did not know these brands

A study in October 2008 shows that about 435 retail brands spread throughout Romania, 40% are discount stores (Profi, Plus Discount, Penny Market, Minimax) and 32% are supermarkets (Billa, Mega Image, Carrefour, Spar, Interex ...); 17% are hypermarkets (Cora, Auchan, Kaufland, Real, Carrefour) and 9% are convenience type stores (Metro, Selgros).
Organizations in the Retail Sector
FMCG Romania (English - Romanian)

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Organizing Goods Transport

Main Useful Means of Transport
The rail network covers 11,385 km, the road network are 198,817 km of which 60,043 km are paved roads (including 228 km)of expressway) and 1,731 km of navigable waterways (including 1075 km on the Danube, 524km on secondary networks, and 136 km of canals).
The port of Constanta
The Port of Tulcea
Henri Coanda International Airport-Bucharest
Sea Transport Organizations
Romanian Ministry of Transportation
Air Transport Organizations
International Association for Air Transportation in Romania
Road Transport Organizations
Ministry of Transportation
Rail Transport Organizations
Ministry of Transportation
Law No. 128/2004 on rail transport

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Identifying a Supplier

Type of Production
Equipment and electrical machinery; Textiles and Footwear; Automobile assembly; construction materials; metallurgy; oil refining.

In 2013, the turnover in the industry sector increased by 11.1% compared to 2012, mainly in the following industries: equipment goods (+14.8%), consumer goods (+4.7%), consumer packaged goods (+3.3%) and intermediate goods (+1.5%). The energy industry decreased by 7.2%.

Business Directories

Multi-sector Directories - Romania - Directory of companies in Romania. Directory - Major Romanian companies. - Business directory for Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia.
Infocompanies - Romanian business directory. - Romania's Yellow Pages.
Romania on line - Internet guide to Romania.
Romanian Yellow and White pages - Find a business in Romania.
Manufacturers Associations of the Main Industries
14 professional associations listed for Romania.
Trade Agencies and Their Representations Abroad
Romanian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Enterprises Federation
Business support - Romania - Europa

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Last Updates: December 2014