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Labour market indicators

Unemployment rate in 2001: 11.0% (ILO data)

Working population:


Total Population

Working population

Activity rate


4 521 000  
2 630 768  
Source : Worldbank

Employment by sector:






Sources: ILO, Eurostat, last available data


Employment contracts
According to the Labor Code of Georgia , an employment contract forms the basis of the relationship between employer and employee. Parties conclude a contract on the basis of free expression of will (declaration of intention). Neither party can be forced to conclude a contract.
The Labor Code states that an employment contract must be concluded in written form. However, Article 19 lays down a significant principle that contracts without a written form shall be deemed as concluded “if an employee has actually started work with the employer’s consent and was employed by the official of the organization who has the right to appoint and/or dismiss the employees”.
An employment contract shall be concluded with unlimited term, it can be concluded with a fixed term only in cases exhaustively regulated by law (not exceeding 3 years period) or with a fixed term necessary for fulfillment of certain work (Article 18).


National monthly minimum wage as of 2006: GEL 115 (monthly)

Average wage for a employee in the manufacturing industry in 2003: 152.5 laris by  month (ILO data)

Social security contributions

Employer: 0,2

Employee: 7.5%


Number of hours

Legal definition of full time work (per week): 41 hours

Retirement age: Men: 70 years, Women: 60 years



Average rate of union membership:97.5 %

Unions: The principal trade union confederation is Georgia is the Amalgamated Trade Unions of Georgia (ATUG), which is the successor to the official union that existed during the Soviet period. The ATUG consists of 31 sectoral unions. The organization officially claimes 600,000 members, but also acknowledges that the number of active, dues-paying members is lower. The union has no affiliation with the Government and receives no government funding (except for support to send 200 children each year to summer camp).
There are two more trade unions in the country in addition to the ATUG:
a) The Free Trade Union of Teachers of Georgia Solidarity (FTUTGS) based in Kutaisi; and
b) Independent Trade Union of Metropolitan Employees.

Useful links

For further informations on the labour market, check out the following web sites:

- International Labour Organization (ILO): studies, statistics and reports on working conditions and labour markets

- NATLEX : ILO database on national labour laws

- Ministry of Labour Health and Social Affairs of Georgia

Last modified in mai-07
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